## Why String Theory, M-Theory, LQG, Multiverses, and Parallel Universes are NOT Physics, and why Moving Dimensions Theory (MDT’s dx4/dt=ic) IS

#### by Dr. Elliot McGucken

To begin with, let us examine a simple, irrefutable proof of moving dimensions theory, that anyone who has witnessed the double-slit experiment, cannot deny.  The proof comes from my earlier paper:

Time as an Emergent Phenomenon & Deriving Einstein’s Relativity from Moving Dimensions Theory’s dx4/dt=ic: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age of Physics

In Memory of John Archibald Wheeler

by Dr. Elliot McGucken

MDT’s postulate: The fourth dimensions is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at c.  MDT’s equation: dx4/dt=ic.

Simple, logical proofs of MDT:

MDT PROOF#1: Relativity tells us that a timeless, ageless photon remains in one place in the fourth dimension.  Quantum mechanics tells us that a photon propagates as a spherically-symmetric expanding wavefront at the velocity of c.  Ergo, the fourth dimension must be expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, in a spherically-symmetric manner.  The expansion of the fourth dimension is the source of nonlocality, entanglement, time and all its arrows and asymmetries, c, relativity, entropy, free will, and all motion, change, and measurement, for no measurement can be made without change.  For the first time in the history of relativity, change has been wedded to the fundamental fabric of spacetime in MDT.

MDT PROOF#2:  Einstein (1912 Man. on Rel.) and Minkowski wrote x4=ict.  Ergo dx4/dt=ic.

MDT PROOF#3: The only way to stay stationary in the three spatial dimensions is to move at c through the fourth dimension. The only way to stay stationary in the fourth dimension is to move at c through the three spatial dimensions. Ergo the fourth dimension is moving at c relative to the three spatial dimensions.

MDT twitter proof (limited to 140 characters): SR: photon is stationary in 4th dimension. QM: photon is probability wave expanding @ c. Ergo: 4th dimension expands @ c & MDT: dx4/dt=ic   –from http://twitter.com/45surf

While Moving Dimensions Theory honors the greats’ traditional definitions of science, String Theory, M-Theory, and Multiverse Mania all deny the wisdom of the Greats, as well as physics and physical reality.

MDT Honors the Greats’ Definition of Science

Einstein and Galileo embodied and exalted the heroic spirit in which Moving Dimensions Theory was conceived:

“But before mankind could be ripe for a science which takes in the whole of reality, a second fundamental truth was needed, which only became common property among philosophers with the advent of Kepler and Galileo.  Pure logical thinking cannot yield us any knowledge of the empirical world; all knowledge of reality starts from experience and ends in it.  (Yes!  Moving dimensions theory begins in experience–the double slit experiment, entropy, relativity, nonlocality, time and all it arrows and asymmetries, and it ends in experience, by providing a physical model predicting all these entities!) Propositions arrived at by purely logical means (String theory, loop quantum gravity (which might not even use logic)) are completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo saw this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether. -Einstein[i]Ideas and Opinions

Einstein’s above quote is quite prominent in its complete absence from today’s leading “physics” books and blogs, as are many of the Greats’ quotes below, wherein the Greats define what science is and ought to be–wherein they define what science has ever been.   Einstein states that, “all knowledge of reality starts from experience and ends in it,” and a glaring problem with string theory is that nobody has ever seen a tiny little string (and thus ST does not begin in experience), nor measured one, nor conceived of an experiment that would allow us to see strings (and thus ST does not, and cannot end in experience either).  Nor has anyone ever seen a multiverse, nor come up with a way of measuring or detecting multiverses.  Nor has anyone ever come across any of the tiny, little loops of loop quantum gravity, nor any way to detect nor measure tiny little loops.  So it is that all these non-theories begin in the imagination, and end in it.  One will hear their proponents singing of the great beauty of their theories, but then, when one asks them for the fundamental equation, they are unable to produce any.  Indeed, it turns out there are millions of equivalent non-theories with various amounts of dimensions, with ever-changing math which never adds up to predict anything we see in physical reality.  In that sense, the theories are actually quite ugly.  Especially when compared to the simple beauty of Moving Dimensions Theory’s  simple, fundamental, far-ranging equation, dx4/dt=ic, which predicts nonlocality, entanglement (the fundamental characteristic of QM according to Schrodenger), entropy, time and all its arrows and asymmetries, and from which all of relativity is derived. dx4/dt=ic is more fundamental than relativity’s two physical postualtes, as both of relativity’s postulates arise from it.

Karl Popper: Good tests kill flawed theories; we remain alive to guess again.

Karl Popper: Science must begin with myths, and with the criticism of myths.

Karl Popper: In so far as a scientific statement speaks about reality, it must be falsifiable; and in so far as it is not falsifiable, it does not speak about reality.

If we are to write a scientific book, we must first of all define what science is and ought be.  In order to do this, I turn towards the greatest scientists and philosophers of all time—those Founding Fathers who are never quoted, nor mentioned, nor exalted in the myriad of books devoted to string theory, multiverses, loop quantum gravity, and other mathematical farses, failures, and frauds perpetuated for fleeting fortune and fame, of funded by the very same fiat-debt regimes which fail on moral and spiritual levels by privatizing profits and socializing risks.  Below are the scientsists I boldly ride forth with—many were persecuted in their own day and age by the cruelty and ignorance of their peers, as I am today by the proud imposters gaining tenure for treatises on space aliens, multiverses, parallel universes, strings, loops, and countless other imaginary conjectures with absolutely no physical reality, but only fiat realties.  But just as S=klogw is engraved on Ludwig von Boltzman’s tombstone, after his theory of entropy was derided, castigated, ignored, and impugned by his peers, contributing to his suicide, so too shall dx4/dt=ic be engraved on my tombstone, as sure ax xp-px=ih is engraved on Max Born’s tombstone.  Here is how the Greats define science:

When the solution is simple, God is answering.[ii]Einstein

A physical theory can be satisfactory only if its structures are composed of elementary foundations. The theory of relativity is ultimately as little satisfactory as, for example, classical thermodynamics was before Boltzmann had interpreted the entropy as probability.[iii] –Einstein

Max Born wrote, “All great discoveries in experimental physics have been made due to the intuition of men who made free use of models which for them were not products of the imagination but representations of real things.”

Albert Einstein: Before I enter upon a critique of mechanics as a foundation of physics, something of a broadly general nature will first have to be said concerning the points of view according to which it is possible to criticize physical theories at all. The first point of view is obvious: The theory must not contradict empirical facts. . . The second point of view is not concerned with the relation to the material of observation but with the premises of the theory itself, with what may briefly but vaguely be characterized as the “naturalness” or “logical simplicity” of the premises (of the basic concepts and of the relations between these which are taken as a basis). This point of view, an exact formulation of which meets with great difficulties, has played an important role in the selection and evaluation of theories since time immemorial.

Isaac Newton: No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess.

Sir Isaac Newton: “If I have seen farther than others, it is because I was standing on the shoulders of giants.”

Isaac Newton: I was like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.

Isaac Newton: If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.

Isaac Newton: We build too many walls and not enough bridges.

Richard Feynman: Learn from science that you must doubt the experts. . . . Science is the belief in the ignorance of experts.”

Isaac Newton: As the ocean is never full of water, so is the heart never full of love.”

Sir Isaac Newton: This most beautiful system [The Universe] could only proceed from the dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.

Einstein: Play Is The Highest Form Of Research.

Albert Einstein: Once it was recognised that the earth was not the center of the world, but only one of the smaller planets, the illusion of the central significance of man himself became untenable. Hence, Nicolaus Copernicus, through his work and the greatness of his personality, taught man to be honest. (Albert Einstein, Message on the 410th Anniversary of the Death of Copernicus, 1953)

To me there has never been a higher source of earthly honor or distinction than that connected with advances in science.[iv] –Newton

The only real valuable thing is intuition. –Einstein

A person starts to live when he can live outside himself. –Einstein

The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education. –Einstein

Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding. –Einstein

No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess.[v] –Newton

For an idea that does not at first seem insane, there is no hope.[vi] – Einstein

If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.[vii] –Newton

In questions of science, the authority of thousands is not worth the humble reasoning of one individual.[viii] –Galileo

Books on physics are full of complicated mathematical formulae. But thought and ideas (the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at c), not formulae (dx4/dt=ic), are the beginning of every physical theory.[ix] —Einstein/Infeld, The Evolution of Physics

But before mankind could be ripe for a science which takes in the whole of reality, a second fundamental truth was needed, which only became common property among philosophers with the advent of Kepler and Galileo.  Pure logical thinking cannot yield us any knowledge of the empirical world; all knowledge of reality starts from experience and ends in it. Propositions arrived at by purely logical means are completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo saw this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether. -Einstein[x], Ideas and Opinions

Epur si muove – (And yet it does move.)[xi] –Galileo

.. my dear Kepler, what do you think of the foremost philosophers of this University? In spite of my oft-repeated efforts and invitations, they have refused, with the obstinacy of a glutted adder, to look at the planets or Moon or my telescope.[xii] –Galileo

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up with it.[xiii] –Planck

Planck: Let us get down to bedrock facts.  The beginning of every act of knowing, and therefore the starting-point of every science, must be our own personal experience.[xiv]  (All physicists have personally experienced the double-slit experiment, and as relativity tells us that photons remain stationary in x4, x4 must thus be propagating at c with both a wavelike and quantum nature!)

Einstein: Mathematics are well and good but nature keeps dragging us around by the nose.[xv]

Einstein: The theory must not contradict empirical facts. . . The second point of view is not concerned with the relation to the material of  observation but with the premises of the theory itself, with what may briefly but vaguely be  characterized as the “naturalness” or “logical simplicity” of the premises of the basic concepts and of the relations between these which are taken as a basis. [xvi]

Planck:  That we do not construct the external world to suit our own ends in the pursuit of science, but that vice versa the external world forces itself upon our recognition with its own  elemental power, is a point which ought to be categorically asserted again and again . . .  From the fact that in studying the happenings of nature . . . it is clear that we always look for the basic thing behind the dependent thing, for what is absolute behind what is relative, for the reality behind the appearance and for what abides behind what is transitory. . this is characteristic not only of physical science but of all science.[xvii] (dx4/dt=ic is the “basic, abiding thing” behind all relativity, entropy, and QM!)

Einstein: Truth is what stands the test of experience.[xviii]

Heisenberg: Science. . . is based on personal experience, or on the experience of others, reliably reported. . . Even today we can still learn from Goethe . . . trusting that this reality will then also reflect the essence of things, the ‘one, the good, and the true.[xix]

Since we experience both particles and waves, and since the Greats agree that physics begins and ends in experience, MDT follows the Greats in providing a foundational model underlying the physical, experiential reality of waves and particles—of the analog and digital—of relativity, QM, and entropy, as well as time and all its arrows and asymmetries.  MDT agrees with the Greats:

Schrodinger: The world is given but once. . .  The world extended in space and time is but our representationExperience does not give us the slightest clue of its being anything besides that. [xx]

Bohr: The classical concepts, i.e., “wave” and “corpuscle” do not fully describe the real world and are, moreover, complementary in part, and hence contradictory. . . . Nor can we avoid occasional contradictions; nevertheless, the images help us to draw nearer to the real facts.  Their existence no one should deny.  “Truth dwells in the deeps.” [xxi]

Schrodinger: Everything—anything at all—is at the same time particle and field.[xxii]  (This is because MDT’s expanding x4 is continually spreading and distributing locality.)

Einstein: Time and again the passion for understanding has led to the illusion that man is able to comprehend the objective world rationally by pure thought without any empirical foundations—in short, by metaphysics.[xxiii]  (MDT begins and ends with empirical foundations!)

Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius—and a lot of courage—to move in the opposite direction.[xxiv] –Einstein

Mathematicians may flatter themselves that they possess new ideas which mere human language is as yet unable to express. Let them make the effort to express these ideas in appropriate words without the aid of symbols, and if they succeed they will not only lay us laymen under a lasting obligation, but, we venture to say, they will find themselves very much enlightened during the process, and will even be doubtful whether the ideas as expressed in symbols had ever quite found their way out of the equations into their minds.[xxv] –Maxwell

I don’t believe in mathematics.[xxvi] –Einstein

Sir Francis Bacon: And all depends on keeping the eye steadily fixed upon the facts of nature and so receiving their images simply as they are. For God forbid that we should give out a dream of our own imagination for a pattern of the world; rather may he graciously grant to us to write an apocalypse or true vision of the footsteps of the Creator imprinted on his creatures.

Do not worry about your difficulties in mathematics, I assure you that mine are greater.[xxvii] –Einstein

Geometry is not true, it is advantageous.[xxviii] –Poincare

John Wilkins: I shall most insist on the observation of Galilæus, the inventor of that famous perspective, whereby we may discern the heavens har by us; whereby those things others have formerly guessed at, are manifested to the eye, and plainly discovered beyond exception of a doubt. –1638

Science’s heroic spirit comes from the scientists, philosophers, and poets of yore. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote, “Science arose from poetry—when times change the two can meet again on a higher level as friends,” and Socrates who mentored Plato who mentored Aristotle who inspired Copernicus, Newton, and Galileo, cited the heroic acts of Achilles as his epic inspiration.

In Einstein’s Mistakes, Dr. Hans Ohanian reports on how physics advances via the emphasis not on math, but on physical reality, “(Max) Born described the weak point in Einstein’s work in those final years: “. . . now he tried to do without any empirical facts, by pure thinking. He believed in the power of reason to guess the laws according to which God built the world.””[xxix]  MDT exalts nature and the physical reality of a timeless, ageless photon, providing a simple, unifying physical model for entropy, statistical mechanics, relativity, and quantum mechanics.

A good decision is based on knowledge and not on numbers.[xxx] –Plato

Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts.[xxxi] –Einstein

Mathematics are well and good but nature keeps dragging us around by the nose.[xxxii] –Einstein

In Disturbing the Universe, Freeman Dyson writes, “Dick [Feynman] fought back against my skepticism, arguing that Einstein had failed because he stopped thinking in concrete physical images (as MDT does!) and became a manipulator of equations. I had to admit that was true. The great discoveries of Einstein’s earlier years were all based on direct physical intuition. Einstein’s later unified theories failed because they were only sets of equations without physical meaning. Dick’s sum-over-histories theory was in the spirit of the young Einstein, not of the old Einstein. It was solidly rooted in physical reality.”[xxxiii]  In The Trouble With Physics, Lee Smolin writes that Bohr was not a Feynman “shut up and calculate” physicist, and from the above Dyson quote, it appears that Feynman wasn’t either.  Lee writes, “Mara Beller, a historian who has studied his [Bohr's] work in detail, points out that there was not a single calculation in his research notebooks, which were all verbal arguments and pictures.”[xxxiv]  Please see MDT’s Fig. 1, presenting a physical model, at the end of this document. (Many more to come!)

In Dark Matters, Dr. Percy Seymour writes, “Albert Einstein was a great admirer of Newton, Faraday, and Maxwell.  In his office he had framed copies of portraits of these scientists. He had this to say about Faraday and Maxwell: “The greatest change in the axiomatic basis of physics—in other words, of our conception of the structure—since Newton laid the foundation of theoretical physics was brought about by Faraday’s and Maxwell’s work on electromagnetic phenomena.”[xxxv]

In his book Einstein, Banesh Hoffman and the great Michael Faraday exalt physical reality over mere math:

Meanwhile, however, the English experimenter Michael Farady was making outstanding experimental discoveries in electricity and magnetism. Being largely self-taught and lacking mathematical facility, he could not interpret his results in the manner of Ampere. And this was fortunate, since it led to a revolution in science. . . most physicists adept at mathematics thought his concepts mathematically naïve.[xxxvi]

Bohr and Einstein debating the nature of quantum mechanics.

Einstein: God does not play dice with the universe.

Neils Bohr: Einstein, stop telling God what to.

Had Einstein wholeheartedly accepted the physical reality of quantum mechanics and the natural nonlocality and entanglement of photons it implied, perhaps he would have seen that not only were light and time connected in relativity, but that relativity and quantum mechanics were connected by a deeper physical reality of a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at c.  After all, Einstein did write x1=x, x2=y, x3=z, and x4 = ict (implying dx4/dt=ic to those bold enough to see it), only he arrived at this years after he set forth the principle of relativity and its two postulates.  MDT starts with a more fundamental physical principle of a fourth expanding dimension and its equation—dx4/dt=ic—and it derives all of relativity while also providing a physical model for quantum entanglement and nonlocality, and thus its probabilistic nature.   MDT exalts the beauty of wonderment, asking: “Why Relativity, Entanglement, Entropy, Nonlocality & Time?”

The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and all science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead: his eyes are closed. –Einstein

The important thing is not to stop questioning.[xxxvii] –Einstein  (Why Relativity, Entanglement, Entropy, Nonlocality & Time? because dx4/dt=ic!)

And now that the Greats have defined what science is and ought to be, we might also let them define what science isn’t.  And in doing so, we can contrast MDT’s simple, beautiful, elegant, unifying successes with String Theory’s “not even wrongishness” and now entrenched religion of failure.  The first page of String Theory in a Nutshell states in a footnoted sentence:

String Theory has been the leading candidate … for a theory that consistently unifies all the fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. It gained popularity because it provides a theory that is UV finite.(1) . . . The footnote (1) reads: “Although there is no rigorous proof to all orders that the theory is UV finite…”[xxxviii]STRING THEORY IN A NUTSHELL

So you see, string theory is not a finite theory, but this is generally kept to the footnotes, when mentioned at all.  Many esteemed, famous, and Nobel Laureate physicists harbor reservations regarding strings:

We don’t know what we are talking about[xxxix]. –Nobel Laureate David Gross on string theory

It is anomalous to replace the four-dimensional continuum by a five-dimensional one and then subsequently to tie up artificially one of those five dimensions in order to account for the fact that it does not manifest itself. -Einstein to Ehrenfest  (Imagine doing this for 10-30+ dimensions!)

String theorists don’t make predictions, they make excuses[xl]. – Feynman, Nobel Laureate

String theory is like a 50 year old woman wearing too much lipstick.[xli] -Robert Laughlin, Nobel Laureate

Actually, I would not even be prepared to call string theory a “theory” rather a “model” or not even that: just a hunch. After all, a theory should come together with instructions on how to deal with it to identify the things one wishes to describe, in our case the elementary particles, and one should, at least in principle, be able to formulate the rules for calculating the properties of these particles, and how to make new predictions for them. Imagine that I give you a chair, while explaining that the legs are still missing, and that the seat, back and armrest will perhaps be delivered soon; whatever I did give you, can I still call it a chair?[xlii] –‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate

It is tragic, but now, we have the string theorists, thousands of them, that also dream of explaining all the features of nature. They just celebrated the 20th anniversary of superstring theory. So when one person spends 30 years, it’s a waste, but when thousands waste 20 years in modern day, they celebrate with champagne. I find that curious.[xliii] –Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Laureate

Nobel prize winner Martinus Veltman concludes his 2003 book

# Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics

with:

 The fact is that this book is about physics, and this implies that the theoretical ideas must be supported by experimental facts. Neither supersymmetry nor string theory satisfy this criterion. They are figments of the theoretical mind. To quote Pauli: They are not even wrong. They have no place here. –Nobel Laureate Martinus Veltman
```Why is the smart money all tied up in strings? Why is so much theoretical capital
expended upon the properties of supersymmetric systems of quantum strings propagating
in ten-dimensional space-time? The good news is that superstring theory may have the
right stuﬀ to explain the “low-energy phenomena” of high-energy physics and gravity as
well. In the context of possible quantum theories of gravity, each of the few currently
known superstring theories may even be unique, ﬁnite and self-consistent. In principle a
superstring theory ordains what particles exist and what properties they have, using no
arbitrary or adjustable parameters. The bad news is that years of intense eﬀort by dozens
of the best and the brightest have yielded not one veriﬁable prediction, nor should any
soon be expected. Called “the new physics” by its promoters, it is not even known to
encompass the old and established standard model. –Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Laureate & Paul Ginsparg, Ph.D.
In lieu of the traditional confrontation between theory and experiment, superstring
theorists pursue an inner harmony where elegance, uniqueness and beauty deﬁne truth.
The theory depends for its existence upon magical coincidences, miraculous cancellations
and relations among seemingly unrelated (and possibly undiscovered) ﬁelds of mathemat-
ics. Are these properties reasons to accept the reality of superstrings? Do mathematics
and aesthetics supplant and transcend mere experiment? Will the mundane phenomeno-
logical problems that we know as physics simply come out in the wash in some distant
tomorrow? Is further experimental endeavor not only diﬃcult and expensive but unneces-
sary and irrelevant? Contemplation of superstrings may evolve into an activity as remote
from conventional particle physics as particle physics is from chemistry, to be conducted
at schools of divinity by future equivalents of medieval theologians. For the ﬁrst time since
the Dark Ages, we can see how our noble search may end, with faith replacing science once
again. Superstring sentiments eerily recall “arguments from design” for the existence of a
supreme being. Was it only in jest that a leading string theorist suggested that “super-
strings may prove as successful as God, Who has after all lasted for millennia and is still
invoked in some quarters as a Theory of Nature”? –Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Laureate & Paul Ginsparg, Ph.D.

The trouble is that most of superstring physics lies up at the Planck mass — about
10 GeV – and it is a long and treacherous road down to where we can see the light of
day. A naive comparison of length scales suggests that to calculate the electron mass from
superstrings would be a trillion times more diﬃcult than to explain human behavior in
terms of atomic physics. Superstring theory, unless it allows an approximation scheme for
yielding useful and testable physical information, might be the sort of thing that Wolfgang
Pauli would have said is “not even wrong.” It would continue to attract newcomers to the
ﬁeld simply because it is the only obvious alternative to explaining why certain detectors
light up like video games near the end of every funding cycle.
–Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Laureate & Paul Ginsparg, Ph.D., Desperately Seeking Superstrings

In the old days we moved up in energy step by step, seeing smaller and smaller struc-
tures. Observations led to theories or models that suggested further experiments. The
going is getting rougher; Colliders are inordinately expensive, detectors have grown im-
mense, and interesting collisions are rare. Not even a politically popular “Superstring
Detection Initiative” with a catchy name like “String Wars” could get us to energies where
superstrings are relevant. We are stuck with a gap of 16 orders of magnitude between
theoretical strings and observable particles, unbridgeable by any currently envisioned ex-
periment. Conventional grand uniﬁed theories, which also depend on a remote fundamental
energy scale (albeit one extrapolated upward from known phenomena rather than down-
ward from abstract principle), retain the grand virtue that, at least in their simplest form,
they were predictive enough to be excluded — by our failure to observe proton decay.
–Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Laureate & Paul Ginsparg, Ph.D., Desperately Seeking Superstrings

How tempting is the top-down approach! How satisfying and economical to explain
everything in one bold stroke of our aesthetic, mathematical or intuitive sensibilities, thus
displaying the power of positive thinking without requiring tedious experimentation! But
a priori arguments have deluded us from ancient Greece on. Without beneﬁt of the
experimental provocation that led to Maxwell’s equations and, inevitably, to the special
theory of relativity, great philosophers pondering for millennia failed even to suspect the
basic kinematical structure of space-time. Pure thought could not anticipate the quantum.
And even had Albert Einstein succeeded in the quest that consumed the latter half of his
life, somehow ﬁnding a framework for unifying electromagnetism and gravity, we would by
now have discarded his theory in the light of experimental data to which he had no access.
He had to fail, simply because he didn’t know enough physics. Today we can’t exclude the
possibility that micro-unicorns might be thriving at a length scale of 10−18 cm. Einstein’s
path, the search for uniﬁcation now, is likely to remain fruitless.
–Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Laureate & Paul Ginsparg, Ph.D., Desperately Seeking Superstrings```

Richard Feynman, an heroic physicists who married commonsense to his mathematical genius, stated in 1987, a year before his death:

…I think all this superstring stuff is crazy and it is in the wrong direction. … I don’t like that they’re not calculating anything. I don’t like that they don’t check their ideas. I don’t like that for anything that disagrees with an experiment, they cook up an explanation—a fix-up to say “Well, it still might be true.”

“Feynman was careful to hedge his remark as being that of an elder statesman of science, who collectively have a history of foolishly considering the speculations of younger researchers to be nonsense, and he would have almost certainly have opposed any effort to cut off funding for superstring research, as it might be right, after all, and should be pursued in parallel with other promising avenues until they make predictions which can be tested by experiment, falsifying and leading to the exclusion of those candidate theories whose predictions are incorrect. . . One wonders, however, what Feynman’s reaction would have been had he lived to contemplate the contemporary scene in high energy theoretical physics almost twenty years later. String theory and its progeny still have yet to make a single, falsifiable prediction which can be tested by a physically plausible experiment. This isn’t surprising, because after decades of work and tens of thousands of scientific publications, nobody really knows, precisely, what superstring (or M, or whatever) theory really is; there is no equation, or set of equations from which one can draw physical predictions. Leonard Susskind, a co-founder of string theory, observes ironically in his book The Cosmic Landscape (March 2006), “On this score, one might facetiously say that String Theory is the ultimate epitome of elegance. With all the years that String Theory has been studied, no one has ever found a single defining equation! The number at present count is zero. We know neither what the fundamental equations of the theory are or even if it has any.” (p. 204). String theory might best be described as the belief that a physically correct theory exists and may eventually be discovered by the research programme conducted under that name. – http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/reading_list/indices/book_502.html  reviewing Peter Woit’s Not Even Wrong

The problem, to state it in a manner more inflammatory than the measured tone of the author, and in a word of my choosing which I do not believe appears at all in his book, is that contemporary academic research in high energy particle theory is corrupt. As is usually the case with such corruption, the root cause is socialism, although the look-only-left blinders almost universally worn in academia today hides this from most observers there. Dwight D. Eisenhower, however, twigged to it quite early. In his farewell address of January 17th, 1961, which academic collectivists endlessly cite for its (prescient) warning about the “military-industrial complex”, he went on to say, although this is rarely quoted,

In this revolution, research has become central; it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government.

Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been over shadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers.

The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded.

And there, of course, is precisely the source of the corruption. This enterprise of theoretical elaboration is funded by taxpayers, who have no say in how their money, taken under threat of coercion, is spent. Which researchers receive funds for what work is largely decided by the researchers themselves, acting as peer review panels. While peer review may work to vet scientific publications, as soon as money becomes involved, the disposition of which can make or break careers, all the venality and naked self- and group-interest which has undone every well-intentioned experiment in collectivism since Robert Owen comes into play, with the completely predictable and tediously repeated results. What began as an altruistic quest driven by intellectual curiosity to discover answers to the deepest questions posed by nature ends up, after a generation of grey collectivism, as a jobs program. In a sense, string theory can be thought of like that other taxpayer-funded and highly hyped program, the space shuttle, which is hideously expensive, dangerous to the careers of those involved with it (albeit in a more direct manner), supported by a standing army composed of some exceptional people and a mass of the mediocre, difficult to close down because it has carefully cultivated a constituency whose own self-interest is invested in continuation of the program, and almost completely unproductive of genuine science.

I don’t like that they’re not calculating anything. I don’t like that they don’t check their ideas. I don’t like that for anything that disagrees with an experiment, they cook up an explanation-a fix-up to say, “Well, it might be true.” For example, the theory requires ten dimensions. Well, maybe there’s a way of wrapping up six of the dimensions. Yes, that’s all possible mathematically, but why not seven? . . . So the fact that it might disagree with experience is very tenuous, it doesn’t produce anything; it has to be excused most of the time. It doesn’t look right.[xliv] –Nobel Lareate R.P. Feynman

But superstring physicists have not yet shown that theory really works. They cannot demonstrate that the standard theory is a logical outcome of string theory. They cannot even be sure that their formalism includes a description of such things as protons and electrons. And they have not yet made even one teeny-tiny experimental prediction. Worst of all, superstring theory does not follow as a logical consequence of some appealing set of hypotheses about nature.[xlv] —Nobel Laureate Sheldon Glashow

“… There have always been kookie fanatics following strange visions. One of the most kookie, and of course most brilliant, was Einstein himself. It has often been said by my string theory friends that superstrings are going to dominate physics for the next half of a century. Ed Witten has said that. I would like to modify that remark. I would say that string theory will dominate the next fifty years of physics in the same way that Kaluza-Klein theory, another kookie theory upon which string theory is based, has dominated particle physics in the past fifty years. Which is to say, not at all.” –Sheldon Glashow

Burton Richter: The anthropic principle, I think, is one of the most stupid ideas ever to infect the scientific community. Look, the anthropic principle is an observation not an explanation. It is perfectly true that if the electromagnetic force had a significantly different strength, then atoms as we know them and molecules as we know them couldn’t exist and we couldn’t exist. This is an observation, it doesn’t tell you anything about how the electromagnetic force got to be that way. Sure we’re here, we’re having an interview, that means the electromagnetic force is constrained to be within a certain narrow boundary but the physics is; why is it in that narrow boundary? Now, you can beg that and you can go back to the scholastics in the Middle Ages and their answer would be ‘God made it so’. That may turn out to be the only thing…we may never find an explanation. If we don’t find an explanation then it’s just an arbitrary constant. –Former Director of Stanford Linear Accelerator, http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/stories/2007/1861083.htm  (Burton Richter, Director Emeritus, SLAC)

Robyn Williams: So the new accelerators could well change our view of the universe, but what Burton Richter isn’t so keen on is what he calls the theology that so many theoreticians like Stephen Hawking and Paul Davies goes in for. He wants his physics hard.

Burton Richter: I called it theological speculation. They seem to have forgotten they have to be connected to physical reality.

http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/stories/2007/1861083.htm  (Burton Richter, Director Emeritus, SLAC)

To me, some of what passes for the most advanced theory in particle physics these days is not really science. When I found myself on a panel recently with three distinguished theorists, I could not resist the opportunity to discuss what I see as major problems in the philosophy behind theory, which seems to have gone off into a kind of metaphysical wonderland. Simply put, much of what currently passes as the most advanced theory looks to be more theological speculation, the development of models with no testable consequences, than it is the development of practical knowledge, the development of models with testable and falsifiable consequences (Karl Popper’s definition of science)…

The anthropic principle is an observation, not an explanation… I have a very hard time accepting the fact that some of our distinguished theorists do not understand the difference between observation and explanation, but it seems to be so…  –http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-59/iss-10/p8.html, Burton Richter, Director Emeritus, SLAC

String theory has no credibility as a candidate theory of physics.  Recognizing failure is a userful part of the scientific strategy. Only when failure is recognized can dead ends be abandoned and useable
pieces of failed programs be recycled. Aside from possible utility, there is a responsibility to recognize failure. Recognizing failure is an essential part of the scientific ethos. Complete scientific failure must be recognized eventually.” –Dan Friedan, early Rutgers String Theorist

“Likewise, the fact that certain beautiful mathematical forms were used in the period 1905-1974 to make the presently successful theory of physics does not imply that any particular standard of mathematical beauty is fundamental to nature. The evidence is for certain specific mathematical forms, of group theory, differential geometry and operator theory. The evidence comes from a limited range of spacetime distances. That range of distances grew so large by historical standards, and the successes of certain specific mathematical forms were so impressive, that there has been an understandable psychological impulse in physicists responsible for the triumph, and in their successors, to believe in a certain standard of mathematical beauty. But history suggests that it is unwise to extrapolate to fundamental principles of nature from the mathematical forms used by theoretical physics in any particular epoch of its history, no matter how impressive their success.  Mathematical beauty in physics cannot be separated from usefulness in the real world. The historical exemplars of mathematical beauty in physics, the theory of general relativity and the Dirac equation, obtained their credibility first by explaining prior knowledge. . . General relativity explained Newtonian gravity and special relativity. The Dirac equation explained the non-relativistic, quantum mechanical spinning electron. Both theories then made definite predictions that could be checked. Mathematical beauty in physics cannot be appreciated until after it has proved useful. Past programs in theoretical physics that have attempted to follow a particular standard of mathematical beauty, detached from the requirement of correspondence with existing knowledge, have failed. The evidence for beautiful mathematical forms in nature requires only that a candidate theory of physics explain those specifc mathematical forms that have actually been found, within the range of distances where they have been seen, to an approximation consistent with the accuracy of their observation.” –{ 11 {JHEP10(2003)063, Dan Friedan

This book is about physics, and this implies that theoretical ideas must be supported by experimental facts.  Neither supersymmtry nor string theory satisfy this crieterion.  They are figments of the theoretical mind.  –Dan Friedan

The great irony of string theory, however, is that the theory itself is not unified. . . For a theory that makes the claim of providing a unifying framework for all physical laws, it is the supreme irony that the theory itself appears so disunited!![xlvi]  Introduction to Superstrings & M-Theory –Kaku

“Is string theory a futile exercise as physics, as I believe it to be? It is an interesting mathematical specialty and has produced and will produce mathematics useful in other contexts, but it seems no more vital as mathematics than other areas of very abstract or specialized math, and doesn’t on that basis justify the incredible amount of effort expended on it.

Until string people can interpret perceived properties of the real world they simply are not doing physics.   Should they be paid by universities and be permitted to pervert impressionable students?   Will young Ph.D’s, whose expertise is limited to superstring theory, be employable if, and when, the string snaps?   Are string thoughts more appropriate to departments of mathematics, or even to schools of divinity, than to physics departments?   How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?   How many dimensions are there in a compacted manifold, 30 powers of ten smaller than a pinhead? –Nobel Laureate Sheldon Glashow

My belief is based on the fact that string theory is the first science in hundreds of years to be pursued in pre-Baconian fashion, without any adequate experimental guidance. It proposes that Nature is the way we would like it to be rather than the way we see it to be; and it is improbable that Nature thinks the same way we do.

The sad thing is that, as several young would-be theorists have explained to me, it is so highly developed that it is a full-time job just to keep up with it. That means that other avenues are not being explored by the bright, imaginative young people, and that alternative career paths are blocked.” —Philip W. Anderson Physicist and Nobel laureate, Princeton

If Einstein were alive today, he would be horrified at this state of affairs. He would upbraid the profession for allowing this mess to develop and fly into a blind rage over the transformation of his beautiful creations into ideologies and the resulting proliferation of logical inconsistencies. Einstein was an artist and a scholar but above all he was a revolutionary. His approach to physics might be summarized as hypothesizing minimally. Never arguing with experiment, demanding total logical consistency, and mistrusting unsubstantiated beliefs. The unsubstantial belief of his day was ether, or more precisely the naïve version of ether that preceded relativity. The unsubstantiated belief of our day is relativity itself. It would be perfectly in character for him to reexamine the facts, toss them over in his mind, and conclude that his beloved principle of relativity was not fundamental at all but emergent (emergent from MDT!)  . . . It would mean that the fabric of space-time was not simply the stage on which life played out but an organizational phenomenon, and that there might be something beyond.[xlvii] (MDT!) -A Different Universe, Laughlin, Nobel Laureate

[String Theory] has no practical utility, however, other than to sustain the myth of the ultimate theory. There is no experimental evidence for the existence of strings in nature, nor does the special mathematics of string theory enable known experimental behavior to be calculated or predicted more easily. . . String theory is, in fact, a textbook case of Deceitful Turkey, a beautiful set of ideas that will always remain just barely out of reach. Far from a wonderful technological hope for a greater tomorrow, it is instead the tragic consequence of an obsolete belief system-in which emergence plays no role and dark law does not exist.[xlviii]A Different Universe, Laughlin

MDT and Socrates’ & Feynman’s Honorable Pursuit of Truth

MDT delivers an ultimate theory underlying Huygens’ Principle which Feynman’s many-paths formulation of QM also exalts, whereas Loop Quantum Gravity and String Theory only sustain a myth of an ultimate theory and thus perpetual funding.   Nobel Laureates have referred to this present era as the dark ages of physics, where progress in physics is frozen in a block universe tied together with tiny, vibrating strings and little loops which nobody has ever physically seen, violating the fundamental maxim of science put forth by Galileo, Einstein, et. al.  Feynman echoes the words of the heroic Achilles (whom Socrates referenced while defending philosophy as a virtuous pursuit in the Apology[xlix]) in defining science as an honest, honorable pursuit: “As I detest the doorways of death, so too do I detest that man who speaks forth one thing while hiding in his heart another.” (Achilles in Homer’s Iliad[l])

The first principle is that you must not fool yourself—and you are the easiest person to fool. … You just have to be honest in a conventional way after that. . . I would like to add something that’s not essential to the science, but something I kind of believe, which is that you should not fool the layman when you’re talking as a scientist. . . I’m talking about a specific, extra type of integrity that is not lying, but bending over backwards to show how you are maybe wrong, that you ought to have when acting as a scientist. And this is our responsibility as scientists, certainly to other scientists, and I think to laymen. . . If you’re representing yourself as a scientist, then you should explain to the layman what you’re doing—and if they don’t want to support you under those circumstances, then that’s their decision. [li] –Feynman, Cargo Cult Science

Errors are not in the art but in the artificers.[lii] –Newton

Please heed our advice that you too are not smitten—The book is not finished, the last word is not Witten. –Nobel Laureate Shedlon Glashow

[i] A. Einstein, Ideas And Opinions (Paperback), Three Rivers Press (June 6, 1995)

[ii] J. Brockman (editor), My Einstein: Essays by Twenty-four of the world’s leading Thinkers on the Man, his Work ,and his Legacy  (Vintage; 1 Reprint edition August 14, 2007, Paperback), p. 45

[iii] Einstein in a letter to Arnold Sommerfield on January 14th, 1908. CPAE, Vol. 5, Doc. 73

[iv] M. Ballou, Treasury of Thought (Forming an Encyclopedia of Quotations fr. Ancient & Modern Authors) (Houghton Osgood, 1879). P. 459,

[v] W.I.B. Beveridge, The Art of Scientific Investigation, Blackburn Press (November 15, 2004), p. 145

[vi] A. Calaprice, Dyson, The New Quotable Einstein, Princeton University Press; (February 22, 2005), p. 294

[vii] Newton’s Letter to Robert Hooke 2/15/1676, The Oxford dict. of quot., Ox. U. Press, USA; 5th ed. (1999), p. 543

[viii] D. Stillman, Discoveries and opinions of Galileo by Galileo Galilei, (Doubleday, 1957), p.134-35.  Also @IntraText

[ix] A. Einstein/Infeld, The Evolution of Physics, (Touchstone), October 30, 1967, p. 277

[x] A. Einstein, Ideas And Opinions (Paperback), Three Rivers Press (June 6, 1995)

[xi] Galileo Galilei, Apocryphal quote: rumored to have been said after making his abjuration of heliocentricity. (Wikipedia)

[xii] Galileo Galilei, Works, cited in J. John Daintith, Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists, 3rd ed., Taylor & Francis, (2008) p. 273

[xiii] M. Planck, F. Gaynor (trans.), Scientific Autobiography and Other Papers, (Philosophical Library, New York, 1949), pp.33-34

[xiv] M. Planck, Where is science going?, W.W. Norton & Company, inc., 1932

[xv] C. Seelig,  Einstein: a documentary biography, Staples Press, 1956 – Biography & Autobiography – 240 pages

[xvi] A. Einstein, Autobiographical Notes, Publisher: Open Court, January 6, 1999, p. 77

[xvii] M. Planck, Where Is Science Going? From Relative to Absolute (pp. 198–9), Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character © 1934

[xviii]  A. Einstein, A. Calaprice, F. Dyson, The Ultimate Quotable Einstein, Princeton University Press, p. 452

[xix] W. Heisenberg, Across the frontiers, Ox Bow Press, 1990 – Science.

[xx] E. Schrodinger, What is life?, Cambridge University Press (January 31, 1992), P. 136

[xxi] Niels Bohr quoted in Heisenberg, Physics and Beyond, G. Allen & Unwin, 1971, p. 210

[xxii]  Schrödinger, What is life?: and other scientific essays, Doubleday, 1956 – Science – 263 pages

[xxiii] A. Einstein, C. Seelig, Ideas And Opinions (Paperback), Three Rivers Press/Random House (June 6, 1995)

[xxiv] D. Fripp, Speaking of science: notable quotes on science, engineering, and the environment, (Newnes, 2000),  p. 79

[xxv] M. Halpern, Language and Human Nature, Transaction Publishers; Reprint edition (August 31, 2008), p. 166

[xxvi] H. Rawson, M. Miner, The New International Dictionary of Quotations, Einstein as quoted by Carl Seelig, (Dutton) 1986

[xxvii] A. Einstein, Letter to Barbara Lee Wilson (7 January 1943), Einstein Archives 42-606

[xxviii] R. Pirsig, Zen and the art of motorcycle maintenance‎, (Bantam Books; First Thus edition 1975), Page 257

[xxix] H. C. Ohanian, Einstein’s Mistakes: The Human Failings of Genius, (W.W. Norton & Co.) 2008

[xxx] Plato, B. Jowett, The dialogues of Plato, Volume 1, (Random House, 1937), p. 60

[xxxii] V. P. Vizgin, J. Barbour, Unified field theorTies in the first third of the 20th century, Einstein to Weyl, (Birkhauser 1994), p. 192

[xxxiii] F. Dyson, Disturbing The Universe (Sloan Foundation Science Series) Basic Books (May 8, 2001) (Paperback), p. 62

[xxxiv] L. Smolin: The Trouble With Physics: The Rise of String Theory, The Fall of Science and What Comes Next, Mariner 2007, p. 309

[xxxv] P. Seymour, Dark Matters: Unifying Matter, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Universal Grid, New Page Books (July), p. 33

[xxxvi] B. Hoffman, H. Dukas, Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel (Plume 1973), p. 193

[xxxvii] Statement to William Miller, as quoted in LIFE Magazine (2 May 1955)

[xxxviii] E. Kiritsis, String Theory in a Nutshell, Princeton University Press (March 19, 2007), p. 1

[xxxix] Editorial, Nobel laureate admits string theory is in trouble,–http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg18825293.700

[xl] P. Woit, Not Even Wrong: The Failure of String Theory and the Search for Unity in Physical Law, Basic Books 2006  p. 175

[xli] Keay Davidson, ‘Theory of everything’ tying researchers up in knots, sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/03/14/MNGRMBOURE1.DTL

[xlii] L. Smolin: The Trouble With Physics: The Rise of String Theory, The Fall of Science and What Comes Next, Mariner 2007,  p. xv

[xliv] P. Woit, Not Even Wrong: The Failure of String Theory and the Search for Unity in Physical Law, Basic Books 2006  p. 174

[xlvi] M. Kaku, Introduction to Superstrings and M-Theory, Springer; 2nd edition (July 30, 1999) , p. 5.

[xlvii] R. Laughlin, A Different Universe, Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down, Basic Books (February 27, 2006), p. 125

[xlviii] R. Laughlin, A Different Universe, Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down, Basic Books (February 27, 2006), p. 149

[xlix] Socrates’ Apology, Plato’s Dilaogues, c. 400 BC

[l] Homer’s Iliad, Book I, c. 800 BC

[li] R. Feynman, Cargo Cult Science, 1974 Caltech Commencement Speech, http://calteches.library.caltech.edu/51/2/CargoCult.pdf

[lii] Newton, Motte, Sir Isaac Newton’s Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Kessinger Pub, (2003), p. xvii

## Moving Dimensions Theory (MDT) Honors the Greats’ Definition of Science

MDT Honors the Greats’ Definition of Science

Karl Popper: Good tests kill flawed theories; we remain alive to guess again.

Karl Popper: Science must begin with myths, and with the criticism of myths.

But before mankind could be ripe for a science which takes in the whole of reality, a second fundamental truth was needed, which only became common property among philosophers with the advent of Kepler and Galileo.  Pure logical thinking cannot yield us any knowledge of the empirical world; all knowledge of reality starts from experience and ends in it. Propositions arrived at by purely logical means are completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo saw this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether. -Einstein[i], Ideas and Opinions

Karl Popper: In so far as a scientific statement speaks about reality, it must be falsifiable; and in so far as it is not falsifiable, it does not speak about reality.

Firstoff, if we are to write a scientific book, we must first of all define what science is and ought be.  In order to do this, I turn towards the greatest scientists and philosophers of all time—those Founding Fathers who are never quoted, nor mentioned, nor exalted in the myriad of books devoted to string theory, multiverses, loop quantum gravity, and other mathematical farses, failures, and frauds perpetuated for fleeting fortune and fame, of funded by the very same fiat-debt regimes which fail on moral and spiritual levels by privatizing profits and socializing risks.  Below are the scientsists I boldly ride forth with—many were persecuted in their own day and age by the cruelty and ignorance of their peers, as I am today by the proud imposters gaining tenure for treatises on space aliens, multiverses, parallel universes, strings, loops, and countless other conjectures with absolutely no physical reality, but only fiat realties.  But just as S=klogw is engraved on Ludwig von Boltzman’s tombstone, after his theory of entropy was derided, castigated, ignored, and impugned by his peers, contributing to his suicide, so too shall dx4/dt=ic be engraved on my tombstone, as sure ax xp-px=ih is engraved on Max Born’s tombstone.  Here is how the Greats define science:

When the solution is simple, God is answering.[ii]Einstein

A physical theory can be satisfactory only if its structures are composed of elementary foundations. The theory of relativity is ultimately as little satisfactory as, for example, classical thermodynamics was before Boltzmann had interpreted the entropy as probability.[iii] –Einstein

Max Born wrote, “All great discoveries in experimental physics have been made due to the intuition of men who made free use of models which for them were not products of the imagination but representations of real things.”

Albert Einstein: Before I enter upon a critique of mechanics as a foundation of physics, something of a broadly general nature will first have to be said concerning the points of view according to which it is possible to criticize physical theories at all. The first point of view is obvious: The theory must not contradict empirical facts. . . The second point of view is not concerned with the relation to the material of observation but with the premises of the theory itself, with what may briefly but vaguely be characterized as the “naturalness” or “logical simplicity” of the premises (of the basic concepts and of the relations between these which are taken as a basis). This point of view, an exact formulation of which meets with great difficulties, has played an important role in the selection and evaluation of theories since time immemorial.

Isaac Newton: No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess.

Sir Isaac Newton: “If I have seen farther than others, it is because I was standing on the shoulders of giants.”

Isaac Newton: I was like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.

Isaac Newton: If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.

Isaac Newton: We build too many walls and not enough bridges.

Richard Feynman: Learn from science that you must doubt the experts. . . . Science is the belief in the ignorance of experts.”

Isaac Newton: As the ocean is never full of water, so is the heart never full of love.”

Sir Isaac Newton: This most beautiful system [The Universe] could only proceed from the dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.

Einstein: Play Is The Highest Form Of Research.

Albert Einstein: Once it was recognised that the earth was not the center of the world, but only one of the smaller planets, the illusion of the central significance of man himself became untenable. Hence, Nicolaus Copernicus, through his work and the greatness of his personality, taught man to be honest. (Albert Einstein, Message on the 410th Anniversary of the Death of Copernicus, 1953)

To me there has never been a higher source of earthly honor or distinction than that connected with advances in science.[iv] –Newton

The only real valuable thing is intuition. –Einstein

A person starts to live when he can live outside himself. –Einstein

The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education. –Einstein

Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding. –Einstein

No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess.[v] –Newton

For an idea that does not at first seem insane, there is no hope.[vi] – Einstein

If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.[vii] –Newton

In questions of science, the authority of thousands is not worth the humble reasoning of one individual.[viii] –Galileo

Books on physics are full of complicated mathematical formulae. But thought and ideas (the fourth dimension is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at c), not formulae (dx4/dt=ic), are the beginning of every physical theory.[ix] —Einstein/Infeld, The Evolution of Physics

But before mankind could be ripe for a science which takes in the whole of reality, a second fundamental truth was needed, which only became common property among philosophers with the advent of Kepler and Galileo.  Pure logical thinking cannot yield us any knowledge of the empirical world; all knowledge of reality starts from experience and ends in it. Propositions arrived at by purely logical means are completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo saw this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether. -Einstein[x], Ideas and Opinions

Epur si muove – (And yet it does move.)[xi] –Galileo

.. my dear Kepler, what do you think of the foremost philosophers of this University? In spite of my oft-repeated efforts and invitations, they have refused, with the obstinacy of a glutted adder, to look at the planets or Moon or my telescope.[xii] –Galileo

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up with it.[xiii] –Planck

Planck: Let us get down to bedrock facts.  The beginning of every act of knowing, and therefore the starting-point of every science, must be our own personal experience.[xiv]  (All physicists have personally experienced the double-slit experiment, and as relativity tells us that photons remain stationary in x4, x4 must thus be propagating at c with both a wavelike and quantum nature!)

Einstein: Mathematics are well and good but nature keeps dragging us around by the nose.[xv]

Einstein: The theory must not contradict empirical facts. . . The second point of view is not concerned with the relation to the material of  observation but with the premises of the theory itself, with what may briefly but vaguely be  characterized as the “naturalness” or “logical simplicity” of the premises of the basic concepts and of the relations between these which are taken as a basis. [xvi]

Planck:  That we do not construct the external world to suit our own ends in the pursuit of science, but that vice versa the external world forces itself upon our recognition with its own  elemental power, is a point which ought to be categorically asserted again and again . . .  From the fact that in studying the happenings of nature . . . it is clear that we always look for the basic thing behind the dependent thing, for what is absolute behind what is relative, for the reality behind the appearance and for what abides behind what is transitory. . this is characteristic not only of physical science but of all science.[xvii] (dx4/dt=ic is the “basic, abiding thing” behind all relativity, entropy, and QM!)

Einstein: Truth is what stands the test of experience.[xviii]

Heisenberg: Science. . . is based on personal experience, or on the experience of others, reliably reported. . . Even today we can still learn from Goethe . . . trusting that this reality will then also reflect the essence of things, the ‘one, the good, and the true.[xix]

Since we experience both particles and waves, and since the Greats agree that physics begins and ends in experience, MDT follows the Greats in providing a foundational model underlying the physical, experiential reality of waves and particles—of the analog and digital—of relativity, QM, and entropy, as well as time and all its arrows and asymmetries.  MDT agrees with the Greats:

Schrodinger: The world is given but once. . .  The world extended in space and time is but our representationExperience does not give us the slightest clue of its being anything besides that. [xx]

Bohr: The classical concepts, i.e., “wave” and “corpuscle” do not fully describe the real world and are, moreover, complementary in part, and hence contradictory. . . . Nor can we avoid occasional contradictions; nevertheless, the images help us to draw nearer to the real facts.  Their existence no one should deny.  “Truth dwells in the deeps.” [xxi]

Schrodinger: Everything—anything at all—is at the same time particle and field.[xxii]  (This is because MDT’s expanding x4 is continually spreading and distributing locality.)

Einstein: Time and again the passion for understanding has led to the illusion that man is able to comprehend the objective world rationally by pure thought without any empirical foundations—in short, by metaphysics.[xxiii]  (MDT begins and ends with empirical foundations!)

Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius—and a lot of courage—to move in the opposite direction.[xxiv] –Einstein

Mathematicians may flatter themselves that they possess new ideas which mere human language is as yet unable to express. Let them make the effort to express these ideas in appropriate words without the aid of symbols, and if they succeed they will not only lay us laymen under a lasting obligation, but, we venture to say, they will find themselves very much enlightened during the process, and will even be doubtful whether the ideas as expressed in symbols had ever quite found their way out of the equations into their minds.[xxv] –Maxwell

I don’t believe in mathematics.[xxvi] –Einstein

Sir Francis Bacon: And all depends on keeping the eye steadily fixed upon the facts of nature and so receiving their images simply as they are. For God forbid that we should give out a dream of our own imagination for a pattern of the world; rather may he graciously grant to us to write an apocalypse or true vision of the footsteps of the Creator imprinted on his creatures.

Do not worry about your difficulties in mathematics, I assure you that mine are greater.[xxvii] –Einstein

Geometry is not true, it is advantageous.[xxviii] –Poincare

John Wilkins: I shall most insist on the observation of Galilæus, the inventor of that famous perspective, whereby we may discern the heavens har by us; whereby those things others have formerly guessed at, are manifested to the eye, and plainly discovered beyond exception of a doubt. –1638

Science’s heroic spirit comes from the scientists, philosophers, and poets of yore. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Wrote, “Science arose from poetry—when times change the two can meet again on a higher level as friends,” and Socrates who mentored Plato who mentored Aristotle who inspired Copernicus, Newton, and Galileo, cited the heroic acts of Achilles as his epic inspiration.

In Einstein’s Mistakes, Dr. Hans Ohanian reports on how physics advances via the emphasis not on math, but on physical reality, “(Max) Born described the weak point in Einstein’s work in those final years: “. . . now he tried to do without any empirical facts, by pure thinking. He believed in the power of reason to guess the laws according to which God built the world.””[xxix]  MDT exalts nature and the physical reality of a timeless, ageless photon, providing a simple, unifying physical model for entropy, statistical mechanics, relativity, and quantum mechanics.

A good decision is based on knowledge and not on numbers.[xxx] –Plato

Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts.[xxxi] –Einstein

Mathematics are well and good but nature keeps dragging us around by the nose.[xxxii] –Einstein

In Disturbing the Universe, Freeman Dyson writes, “Dick [Feynman] fought back against my skepticism, arguing that Einstein had failed because he stopped thinking in concrete physical images (as MDT does!) and became a manipulator of equations. I had to admit that was true. The great discoveries of Einstein’s earlier years were all based on direct physical intuition. Einstein’s later unified theories failed because they were only sets of equations without physical meaning. Dick’s sum-over-histories theory was in the spirit of the young Einstein, not of the old Einstein. It was solidly rooted in physical reality.”[xxxiii]  In The Trouble With Physics, Lee Smolin writes that Bohr was not a Feynman “shut up and calculate” physicist, and from the above Dyson quote, it appears that Feynman wasn’t either.  Lee writes, “Mara Beller, a historian who has studied his [Bohr's] work in detail, points out that there was not a single calculation in his research notebooks, which were all verbal arguments and pictures.”[xxxiv]  Please see MDT’s Fig. 1, presenting a physical model, at the end of this document. (Many more to come!)

In Dark Matters, Dr. Percy Seymour writes, “Albert Einstein was a great admirer of Newton, Faraday, and Maxwell.  In his office he had framed copies of portraits of these scientists. He had this to say about Faraday and Maxwell: “The greatest change in the axiomatic basis of physics—in other words, of our conception of the structure—since Newton laid the foundation of theoretical physics was brought about by Faraday’s and Maxwell’s work on electromagnetic phenomena.”[xxxv]

In his book Einstein, Banesh Hoffman and the great Michael Faraday exalt physical reality over mere math:

Meanwhile, however, the English experimenter Michael Farady was making outstanding experimental discoveries in electricity and magnetism. Being largely self-taught and lacking mathematical facility, he could not interpret his results in the manner of Ampere. And this was fortunate, since it led to a revolution in science. . . most physicists adept at mathematics thought his concepts mathematically naïve.[xxxvi]

Bohr and Einstein debating the nature of quantum mechanics.

Einstein: God does not play dice with the universe.

Neils Bohr: Einstein, stop telling God what to.

Had Einstein wholeheartedly accepted the physical reality of quantum mechanics and the natural nonlocality and entanglement of photons it implied, perhaps he would have seen that not only were light and time connected in relativity, but that relativity and quantum mechanics were connected by a deeper physical reality of a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at c.  After all, Einstein did write x1=x, x2=y, x3=z, and x4 = ict (implying dx4/dt=ic to those bold enough to see it), only he arrived at this years after he set forth the principle of relativity and its two postulates.  MDT starts with a more fundamental physical principle and equation—dx4/dt=ic—and it derives all of relativity while also providing a physical model for quantum entanglement and nonlocality, and thus its probabilistic nature.   MDT exalts the beauty of wonderment, asking: “Why Relativity, Entanglement, Entropy, Nonlocality & Time?”

The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and all science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead: his eyes are closed. –Einstein

The important thing is not to stop questioning.[xxxvii] –Einstein

And now that the Greats have defined what science is and ought to be, we might also let them define what science isn’t.  And in doing so, we can contrast MDT’s elegant, unifying successes with String Theory’s “not even wrongishness” and now entrenched religion of failure.  The first page of String Theory in a Nutshell states in a footnoted sentence:

String Theory has been the leading candidate … for a theory that consistently unifies all the fundamental forces of nature, including gravity. It gained popularity because it provides a theory that is UV finite.(1) . . . The footnote (1) reads: “Although there is no rigorous proof to all orders that the theory is UV finite…”[xxxviii]STRING THEORY IN A NUTSHELL

So you see, string theory is not a finite theory, but this is generally kept to the footnotes, when mentioned at all.  Many Nobel Laureate physicists harbor reservations regarding strings:

We don’t know what we are talking about[xxxix]. –Nobel Laureate David Gross on string theory

It is anomalous to replace the four-dimensional continuum by a five-dimensional one and then subsequently to tie up artificially one of those five dimensions in order to account for the fact that it does not manifest itself. -Einstein to Ehrenfest  (Imagine doing this for 10-30+ dimensions!)

String theorists don’t make predictions, they make excuses[xl]. – Feynman, Nobel Laureate

String theory is like a 50 year old woman wearing too much lipstick.[xli] -Robert Laughlin, Nobel Laureate

Actually, I would not even be prepared to call string theory a “theory” rather a “model” or not even that: just a hunch. After all, a theory should come together with instructions on how to deal with it to identify the things one wishes to describe, in our case the elementary particles, and one should, at least in principle, be able to formulate the rules for calculating the properties of these particles, and how to make new predictions for them. Imagine that I give you a chair, while explaining that the legs are still missing, and that the seat, back and armrest will perhaps be delivered soon; whatever I did give you, can I still call it a chair?[xlii] –‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate

It is tragic, but now, we have the string theorists, thousands of them, that also dream of explaining all the features of nature. They just celebrated the 20th anniversary of superstring theory. So when one person spends 30 years, it’s a waste, but when thousands waste 20 years in modern day, they celebrate with champagne. I find that curious.[xliii] –Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Laureate

Richard Feynman, a man about as difficult to bamboozle on scientific topics as any who ever lived, remarked in an interview (p. 180) in 1987, a year before his death:

…I think all this superstring stuff is crazy and it is in the wrong direction. … I don’t like that they’re not calculating anything. I don’t like that they don’t check their ideas. I don’t like that for anything that disagrees with an experiment, they cook up an explanation—a fix-up to say “Well, it still might be true.”

Feynman was careful to hedge his remark as being that of an elder statesman of science, who collectively have a history of foolishly considering the speculations of younger researchers to be nonsense, and he would have almost certainly have opposed any effort to cut off funding for superstring research, as it might be right, after all, and should be pursued in parallel with other promising avenues until they make predictions which can be tested by experiment, falsifying and leading to the exclusion of those candidate theories whose predictions are incorrect.

One wonders, however, what Feynman’s reaction would have been had he lived to contemplate the contemporary scene in high energy theoretical physics almost twenty years later. String theory and its progeny still have yet to make a single, falsifiable prediction which can be tested by a physically plausible experiment. This isn’t surprising, because after decades of work and tens of thousands of scientific publications, nobody really knows, precisely, what superstring (or M, or whatever) theory really is; there is no equation, or set of equations from which one can draw physical predictions. Leonard Susskind, a co-founder of string theory, observes ironically in his book The Cosmic Landscape (March 2006), “On this score, one might facetiously say that String Theory is the ultimate epitome of elegance. With all the years that String Theory has been studied, no one has ever found a single defining equation! The number at present count is zero. We know neither what the fundamental equations of the theory are or even if it has any.” (p. 204). String theory might best be described as the belief that a physically correct theory exists and may eventually be discovered by the research programme conducted under that name. – http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/reading_list/indices/book_502.html  reviewing Peter Woit’s Not Even Wrong

The problem, to state it in a manner more inflammatory than the measured tone of the author, and in a word of my choosing which I do not believe appears at all in his book, is that contemporary academic research in high energy particle theory is corrupt. As is usually the case with such corruption, the root cause is socialism, although the look-only-left blinders almost universally worn in academia today hides this from most observers there. Dwight D. Eisenhower, however, twigged to it quite early. In his farewell address of January 17th, 1961, which academic collectivists endlessly cite for its (prescient) warning about the “military-industrial complex”, he went on to say, although this is rarely quoted,

In this revolution, research has become central; it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government.

Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been over shadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers.

The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present and is gravely to be regarded.

And there, of course, is precisely the source of the corruption. This enterprise of theoretical elaboration is funded by taxpayers, who have no say in how their money, taken under threat of coercion, is spent. Which researchers receive funds for what work is largely decided by the researchers themselves, acting as peer review panels. While peer review may work to vet scientific publications, as soon as money becomes involved, the disposition of which can make or break careers, all the venality and naked self- and group-interest which has undone every well-intentioned experiment in collectivism since Robert Owen comes into play, with the completely predictable and tediously repeated results. What began as an altruistic quest driven by intellectual curiosity to discover answers to the deepest questions posed by nature ends up, after a generation of grey collectivism, as a jobs program. In a sense, string theory can be thought of like that other taxpayer-funded and highly hyped program, the space shuttle, which is hideously expensive, dangerous to the careers of those involved with it (albeit in a more direct manner), supported by a standing army composed of some exceptional people and a mass of the mediocre, difficult to close down because it has carefully cultivated a constituency whose own self-interest is invested in continuation of the program, and almost completely unproductive of genuine science.

I don’t like that they’re not calculating anything. I don’t like that they don’t check their ideas. I don’t like that for anything that disagrees with an experiment, they cook up an explanation-a fix-up to say, “Well, it might be true.” For example, the theory requires ten dimensions. Well, maybe there’s a way of wrapping up six of the dimensions. Yes, that’s all possible mathematically, but why not seven? . . . So the fact that it might disagree with experience is very tenuous, it doesn’t produce anything; it has to be excused most of the time. It doesn’t look right.[xliv] –Nobel Lareate R.P. Feynman

But superstring physicists have not yet shown that theory really works. They cannot demonstrate that the standard theory is a logical outcome of string theory. They cannot even be sure that their formalism includes a description of such things as protons and electrons. And they have not yet made even one teeny-tiny experimental prediction. Worst of all, superstring theory does not follow as a logical consequence of some appealing set of hypotheses about nature.[xlv] —Nobel Laureate Sheldon Glashow

“… There have always been kookie fanatics following strange visions. One of the most kookie, and of course most brilliant, was Einstein himself. It has often been said by my string theory friends that superstrings are going to dominate physics for the next half of a century. Ed Witten has said that. I would like to modify that remark. I would say that string theory will dominate the next fifty years of physics in the same way that Kaluza-Klein theory, another kookie theory upon which string theory is based, has dominated particle physics in the past fifty years. Which is to say, not at all.” –Sheldon Glashow

Burton Richter: The anthropic principle, I think, is one of the most stupid ideas ever to infect the scientific community. Look, the anthropic principle is an observation not an explanation. It is perfectly true that if the electromagnetic force had a significantly different strength, then atoms as we know them and molecules as we know them couldn’t exist and we couldn’t exist. This is an observation, it doesn’t tell you anything about how the electromagnetic force got to be that way. Sure we’re here, we’re having an interview, that means the electromagnetic force is constrained to be within a certain narrow boundary but the physics is; why is it in that narrow boundary? Now, you can beg that and you can go back to the scholastics in the Middle Ages and their answer would be ‘God made it so’. That may turn out to be the only thing…we may never find an explanation. If we don’t find an explanation then it’s just an arbitrary constant. –Former Director of Stanford Linear Accelerator, http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/stories/2007/1861083.htm  (Burton Richter, Director Emeritus, SLAC)

Robyn Williams: So the new accelerators could well change our view of the universe, but what Burton Richter isn’t so keen on is what he calls the theology that so many theoreticians like Stephen Hawking and Paul Davies goes in for. He wants his physics hard.

Burton Richter: I called it theological speculation. They seem to have forgotten they have to be connected to physical reality.

http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/stories/2007/1861083.htm  (Burton Richter, Director Emeritus, SLAC)

To me, some of what passes for the most advanced theory in particle physics these days is not really science. When I found myself on a panel recently with three distinguished theorists, I could not resist the opportunity to discuss what I see as major problems in the philosophy behind theory, which seems to have gone off into a kind of metaphysical wonderland. Simply put, much of what currently passes as the most advanced theory looks to be more theological speculation, the development of models with no testable consequences, than it is the development of practical knowledge, the development of models with testable and falsifiable consequences (Karl Popper’s definition of science)…

The anthropic principle is an observation, not an explanation… I have a very hard time accepting the fact that some of our distinguished theorists do not understand the difference between observation and explanation, but it seems to be so…  –http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-59/iss-10/p8.html, Burton Richter, Director Emeritus, SLAC

String theory has no credibility as a candidate theory of physics.  Recognizing failure is a userful part of the scientific strategy. Only when failure is recognized can dead ends be abandoned and useable
pieces of failed programs be recycled. Aside from possible utility, there is a responsibility to recognize failure. Recognizing failure is an essential part of the scientific ethos. Complete scientific failure must be recognized eventually.” –Dan Friedan, early Rutgers String Theorist

“Likewise, the fact that certain beautiful mathematical forms were used in the period 1905-1974 to make the presently successful theory of physics does not imply that any particular standard of mathematical beauty is fundamental to nature. The evidence is for certain specific mathematical forms, of group theory, di®erential geometry and operator theory. The evidence comes from a limited range of spacetime distances. That range of distances grew so large by historical standards, and the successes of certain specific mathematical forms were so impressive, that there has been an understandable psychological impulse in physicists responsible for the triumph, and in their successors, to believe in a certain standard of mathematical beauty. But history suggests that it is unwise to extrapolate to fundamental principles of nature from the mathematical forms used by theoretical physics in any particular epoch of its history, no matter how impressive their success.  Mathematical beauty in physics cannot be separated from usefulness in the real world. The historical exemplars of mathematical beauty in physics, the theory of general relativity and the Dirac equation, obtained their credibility first by explaining prior knowledge. . . General relativity explained Newtonian gravity and special relativity. The Dirac equation explained the non-relativistic, quantum mechanical spinning electron. Both theories then made definite predictions that could be checked. Mathematical beauty in physics cannot be appreciated until after it has proved useful. Past programs in theoretical physics that have attempted to follow a particular standard of mathematical beauty, detached from the requirement of correspondence with existing knowledge, have failed. The evidence for beautiful mathematical forms in nature requires only that a candidate theory of physics explain those specifc mathematical forms that have actually been found, within the range of distances where they have been seen, to an approximation consistent with the accuracy of their observation.” –{ 11 {JHEP10(2003)063, Dan Friedan

This book is about physics, and this implies that theoretical ideas must be supported by experimental facts.  Neither supersymmtry nor string theory satisfy this crieterion.  They are figments of the theoretical mind.  nothing more than an interesting

The great irony of string theory, however, is that the theory itself is not unified. . . For a theory that makes the claim of providing a unifying framework for all physical laws, it is the supreme irony that the theory itself appears so disunited!![xlvi]  Introduction to Superstrings & M-Theory –Kaku

Is string theory a futile exercise as physics, as I believe it to be? It is an interesting mathematical specialty and has produced and will produce mathematics useful in other contexts, but it seems no more vital as mathematics than other areas of very abstract or specialized math, and doesn’t on that basis justify the incredible amount of effort expended on it.

My belief is based on the fact that string theory is the first science in hundreds of years to be pursued in pre-Baconian fashion, without any adequate experimental guidance. It proposes that Nature is the way we would like it to be rather than the way we see it to be; and it is improbable that Nature thinks the same way we do.

The sad thing is that, as several young would-be theorists have explained to me, it is so highly developed that it is a full-time job just to keep up with it. That means that other avenues are not being explored by the bright, imaginative young people, and that alternative career paths are blocked.

—Philip W. Anderson Physicist and Nobel laureate, Princeton

If Einstein were alive today, he would be horrified at this state of affairs. He would upbraid the profession for allowing this mess to develop and fly into a blind rage over the transformation of his beautiful creations into ideologies and the resulting proliferation of logical inconsistencies. Einstein was an artist and a scholar but above all he was a revolutionary. His approach to physics might be summarized as hypothesizing minimally. Never arguing with experiment, demanding total logical consistency, and mistrusting unsubstantiated beliefs. The unsubstantial belief of his day was ether, or more precisely the naïve version of ether that preceded relativity. The unsubstantiated belief of our day is relativity itself. It would be perfectly in character for him to reexamine the facts, toss them over in his mind, and conclude that his beloved principle of relativity was not fundamental at all but emergent (emergent from MDT!)  . . . It would mean that the fabric of space-time was not simply the stage on which life played out but an organizational phenomenon, and that there might be something beyond.[xlvii] (MDT!) -A Different Universe, Laughlin, Nobel Laureate

[String Theory] has no practical utility, however, other than to sustain the myth of the ultimate theory. There is no experimental evidence for the existence of strings in nature, nor does the special mathematics of string theory enable known experimental behavior to be calculated or predicted more easily. . . String theory is, in fact, a textbook case of Deceitful Turkey, a beautiful set of ideas that will always remain just barely out of reach. Far from a wonderful technological hope for a greater tomorrow, it is instead the tragic consequence of an obsolete belief system-in which emergence plays no role and dark law does not exist.[xlviii]

[i] A. Einstein, Ideas And Opinions (Paperback), Three Rivers Press (June 6, 1995)

[ii] J. Brockman (editor), My Einstein: Essays by Twenty-four of the world’s leading Thinkers on the Man, his Work ,and his Legacy  (Vintage; 1 Reprint edition August 14, 2007, Paperback), p. 45

[iii] Einstein in a letter to Arnold Sommerfield on January 14th, 1908. CPAE, Vol. 5, Doc. 73

[iv] M. Ballou, Treasury of Thought (Forming an Encyclopedia of Quotations fr. Ancient & Modern Authors) (Houghton Osgood, 1879). P. 459,

[v] W.I.B. Beveridge, The Art of Scientific Investigation, Blackburn Press (November 15, 2004), p. 145

[vi] A. Calaprice, Dyson, The New Quotable Einstein, Princeton University Press; (February 22, 2005), p. 294

[vii] Newton’s Letter to Robert Hooke 2/15/1676, The Oxford dict. of quot., Ox. U. Press, USA; 5th ed. (1999), p. 543

[viii] D. Stillman, Discoveries and opinions of Galileo by Galileo Galilei, (Doubleday, 1957), p.134-35.  Also @IntraText

[ix] A. Einstein/Infeld, The Evolution of Physics, (Touchstone), October 30, 1967, p. 277

[x] A. Einstein, Ideas And Opinions (Paperback), Three Rivers Press (June 6, 1995)

[xi] Galileo Galilei, Apocryphal quote: rumored to have been said after making his abjuration of heliocentricity. (Wikipedia)

[xii] Galileo Galilei, Works, cited in J. John Daintith, Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists, 3rd ed., Taylor & Francis, (2008) p. 273

[xiii] M. Planck, F. Gaynor (trans.), Scientific Autobiography and Other Papers, (Philosophical Library, New York, 1949), pp.33-34

[xiv] M. Planck, Where is science going?, W.W. Norton & Company, inc., 1932

[xv] C. Seelig,  Einstein: a documentary biography, Staples Press, 1956 – Biography & Autobiography – 240 pages

[xvi] A. Einstein, Autobiographical Notes, Publisher: Open Court, January 6, 1999, p. 77

[xvii] M. Planck, Where Is Science Going? From Relative to Absolute (pp. 198–9), Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character © 1934

[xviii]  A. Einstein, A. Calaprice, F. Dyson, The Ultimate Quotable Einstein, Princeton University Press, p. 452

[xix] W. Heisenberg, Across the frontiers, Ox Bow Press, 1990 – Science.

[xx] E. Schrodinger, What is life?, Cambridge University Press (January 31, 1992), P. 136

[xxi] Niels Bohr quoted in Heisenberg, Physics and Beyond, G. Allen & Unwin, 1971, p. 210

[xxii]  Schrödinger, What is life?: and other scientific essays, Doubleday, 1956 – Science – 263 pages

[xxiii] A. Einstein, C. Seelig, Ideas And Opinions (Paperback), Three Rivers Press/Random House (June 6, 1995)

[xxiv] D. Fripp, Speaking of science: notable quotes on science, engineering, and the environment, (Newnes, 2000),  p. 79

[xxv] M. Halpern, Language and Human Nature, Transaction Publishers; Reprint edition (August 31, 2008), p. 166

[xxvi] H. Rawson, M. Miner, The New International Dictionary of Quotations, Einstein as quoted by Carl Seelig, (Dutton) 1986

[xxvii] A. Einstein, Letter to Barbara Lee Wilson (7 January 1943), Einstein Archives 42-606

[xxviii] R. Pirsig, Zen and the art of motorcycle maintenance‎, (Bantam Books; First Thus edition 1975), Page 257

[xxix] H. C. Ohanian, Einstein’s Mistakes: The Human Failings of Genius, (W.W. Norton & Co.) 2008

[xxx] Plato, B. Jowett, The dialogues of Plato, Volume 1, (Random House, 1937), p. 60

[xxxii] V. P. Vizgin, J. Barbour, Unified field theorTies in the first third of the 20th century, Einstein to Weyl, (Birkhauser 1994), p. 192

[xxxiii] F. Dyson, Disturbing The Universe (Sloan Foundation Science Series) Basic Books (May 8, 2001) (Paperback), p. 62

[xxxiv] L. Smolin: The Trouble With Physics: The Rise of String Theory, The Fall of Science and What Comes Next, Mariner 2007, p. 309

[xxxv] P. Seymour, Dark Matters: Unifying Matter, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Universal Grid, New Page Books (July), p. 33

[xxxvi] B. Hoffman, H. Dukas, Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel (Plume 1973), p. 193

[xxxvii] Statement to William Miller, as quoted in LIFE Magazine (2 May 1955)

[xxxviii] E. Kiritsis, String Theory in a Nutshell, Princeton University Press (March 19, 2007), p. 1

[xxxix] Editorial, Nobel laureate admits string theory is in trouble,–http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg18825293.700

[xl] P. Woit, Not Even Wrong: The Failure of String Theory and the Search for Unity in Physical Law, Basic Books 2006  p. 175

[xli] Keay Davidson, ‘Theory of everything’ tying researchers up in knots, sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/03/14/MNGRMBOURE1.DTL

[xlii] L. Smolin: The Trouble With Physics: The Rise of String Theory, The Fall of Science and What Comes Next, Mariner 2007,  p. xv

[xliv] P. Woit, Not Even Wrong: The Failure of String Theory and the Search for Unity in Physical Law, Basic Books 2006  p. 174

[xlvi] M. Kaku, Introduction to Superstrings and M-Theory, Springer; 2nd edition (July 30, 1999) , p. 5.

[xlvii] R. Laughlin, A Different Universe, Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down, Basic Books (February 27, 2006), p. 125

[xlviii] R. Laughlin, A Different Universe, Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down, Basic Books (February 27, 2006), p. 149

•July 10, 2011 • 2 Comments

“More intellectual curiosity, versatility and yen for physics than Elliot McGucken’s I have never seen in any senior or graduate student. . . Originality, powerful motivation, and a can-do spirit make me think that McGucken is a top bet for graduate school in physics. . . I say this on the basis of close contacts with him over the past year and a half. . . I gave him as an independent task to figure out the time factor in the standard Schwarzchild expression around a spherically- symmetric center of attraction.  I gave him the proofs of my new general-audience, calculus-free book on general relativity, A Journey Into Gravity and Space Time.  There the space part of the Schwarzchild geometric is worked out by purely geometric methods.  “Can you, by poor-man’s reasoning, derive what I never have, the time part?”  He could and did, and wrote it all up in a beautifully clear account. . . .his second junior paper . . .entitled Within a Context, was done with another advisor, and dealt with an entirely different part of physics, the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky experiment and delayed choice experiments in general. . . this paper was so outstanding. . .  I am absolutely delighted that this semester McGucken is doing a project with the cyclotron group on time reversal asymmetry.  Electronics, machine-shop work and making equipment function are things in which he now revels.  But he revels in Shakespeare, too.  Acting the part of Prospero in the Tempest. . . ”  –John Archibald Wheeler,PrincetonUniversity, Recommendation for Elliot McGucken for Admission toGraduateSchool of Physics

Dr. Elliot McGucken’s Biography: Dr. E” received a B.A. in physics from Princeton University and a Ph.D. in physics from UNC Chapel Hill, where his research on an artificial retina, which is now helping the blind see, appeared in Business Week and Popular Science and was awarded a Merrill Lynch Innovations Grant.  While atPrinceton, McGucken worked on projects concerning quantum mechanics and general relativity with the late John A. Wheeler, and the projects combined to form an appendix treating time as an emergent phenomenon in his dissertation.  McGucken is writing a book for the Artistic Entrepreneurship & Technology (artsentrepreneurship.com) curriculum he created.

All great discoveries in experimental physics have been made due to the intuition of men who made free use of models which for them were not products of the imagination but representations of real things. –Max Born

dx4/dt=ic represents the physically real reality of a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.

“The question of whether the waves are something ‘real’ or a function to describe and predict phenomena in a convenient way is a matter of taste. I personally like to regard a probability wave, even in 3N-dimensional space, as a real thing, certainly as more than a tool for mathematical calculations. … Quite generally, how could we rely on probability predictions if by this notion we do not refer to something real and objective? (Max Born, Dover publ., 1964, ‘Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance’, p. 107)

Max Born wrote, “All great discoveries in experimental physics have been made due to the intuition of men who made free use of models which for them were not products of the imagination but representations of real things.”

## Time as an Emergent Phenomenon & Deriving Einstein’s Relativity from Moving Dimensions Theory’s dx4/dt=ic: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age of Physics In Memory of John Archibald Wheeler by Dr. Elliot McGucken

Time as an Emergent Phenomenon & Deriving Einstein’s Relativity from Moving Dimensions Theory’s dx4/dt=ic: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age of Physics

In Memory of John Archibald Wheeler

by Dr. Elliot McGucken

ABSTRACT

In his 1912 Manuscript on Relativity, Einstein never stated that time is the fourth dimension, but rather he wrote x4 = ict.  The fourth dimension is not time, but ict.  Despite this, prominent physicists have oft equated time and the fourth dimension, leading to un-resolvable paradoxes and confusion regarding time’s physical nature, as physicists mistakenly projected properties of the three spatial dimensions onto a time dimension, resulting in curious concepts including frozen time and block universes in which the past and future are omni-present, thusly denying free will, while implying the possibility of time travel into the past, which visitors from the future have yet to verify.  Beginning with the postulate that time is an emergent phenomenon resulting from a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, diverse phenomena from relativity, quantum mechanics, and statistical mechanics are accounted for and unified with a hitherto unsung universal invariant dx4/dt=ic.  Time dilation, the equivalence of mass and energy, quantum entanglement, nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and entropy are shown to arise from a common, deeper physical reality expressed with dx4/dt=ic.  This postulate and equation, from which Einstein’s relativity is derived, presents a fundamental model accounting for the emergence of time, the constant velocity of light, the fact that the maximum velocity is c, and the fact that c is independent of the velocity of the source, as photons are but matter surfing a fourth expanding dimension.  In general relativity, Einstein showed that the dimensions themselves could bend, curve, and move.  The present theory extends this principle, postulating that the fourth dimension is moving independently of the three spatial dimensions, distributing locality and fathering time.  This physical model underlies and accounts for time in quantum mechanics, relativity, and statistical mechanics, as well as entropy, the universe’s expansion, and time’s arrows and asymmetries in all arenas.

“More intellectual curiosity, versatility and yen for physics than Elliot McGucken’s I have never seen in any senior or graduate student. . . Originality, powerful motivation, and a can-do spirit make me think that McGucken is a top bet for graduate school in physics. . . I say this on the basis of close contacts with him over the past year and a half. . . I gave him as an independent task to figure out the time factor in the standard Schwarzchild expression around a spherically- symmetric center of attraction.  I gave him the proofs of my new general-audience, calculus-free book on general relativity, A Journey Into Gravity and Space Time.  There the space part of the Schwarzchild geometric is worked out by purely geometric methods.  “Can you, by poor-man’s reasoning, derive what I never have, the time part?”  He could and did, and wrote it all up in a beautifully clear account. . . .his second junior paper . . .entitled Within a Context, was done with another advisor, and dealt with an entirely different part of physics, the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky experiment and delayed choice experiments in general. . . this paper was so outstanding. . .  I am absolutely delighted that this semester McGucken is doing a project with the cyclotron group on time reversal asymmetry.  Electronics, machine-shop work and making equipment function are things in which he now revels.  But he revels in Shakespeare, too.  Acting the part of Prospero in the Tempest. . . ”  –John Archibald Wheeler,PrincetonUniversity, Recommendation for Elliot McGucken for Admission toGraduateSchool of Physics

## Proofs of Moving Dimensions Theory: Hero’s Journey Physics & Moving Dimensions Theory

Time as an Emergent Phenomenon & Deriving Einstein’s Relativity from Moving Dimensions Theory’s dx4/dt=ic: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age of Physics

In Memory of John Archibald Wheeler

by Dr. Elliot McGucken

MDT’s postulate: The fourth dimensions is expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at c.  MDT’s equation: dx4/dt=ic.

Simple, logical proofs of MDT:

MDT PROOF#1: Relativity tells us that a timeless, ageless photon remains in one place in the fourth dimension.  Quantum mechanics tells us that a photon propagates as a spherically-symmetric expanding wavefront at the velocity of c.  Ergo, the fourth dimension must be expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, in a spherically-symmetric manner.  The expansion of the fourth dimension is the source of nonlocality, entanglement, time and all its arrows and asymmetries, c, relativity, entropy, free will, and all motion, change, and measurement, for no measurement can be made without change.  For the first time in the history of relativity, change has been wedded to the fundamental fabric of spacetime in MDT.

MDT PROOF#2:  Einstein (1912 Man. on Rel.) and Minkowski wrote x4=ict.  Ergo dx4/dt=ic.

MDT PROOF#3: The only way to stay stationary in the three spatial dimensions is to move at c through the fourth dimension. The only way to stay stationary in the fourth dimension is to move at c through the three spatial dimensions. Ergo the fourth dimension is moving at c relative to the three spatial dimensions.

MDT twitter proof (limited to 140 characters): SR: photon is stationary in 4th dimension. QM: photon is probability wave expanding @ c. Ergo: 4th dimension expands @ c & MDT: dx4/dt=ic   –from http://twitter.com/45surf

## Three Foundational Papers on Moving Dimensions Theory: Time as an Emergent Phenomenon: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age of Physics by Dr. Elliot McGucken

•July 10, 2011 • 1 Comment

Time as an Emergent Phenomenon: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age of Physics In Memory of John Archibald Wheeler by Dr. Elliot McGucken

What is Ultimately Possible in Physics? Physics! A Hero’s Journey with Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein, Schrodinger, Bohr, and the Greats towards Moving Dimensions Theory. E pur si muove!

On the Emergence of QM, Relativity, Entropy, Time, iħ, and ic from the Foundational, Physical Reality of a Fourth Dimension x4 Expanding with a Discrete (Digital) Wavelength lp at c Relative to Three Continuous (Analog) Spatial Dimensions

Time as an Emergent Phenomenon: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age of Physics by Dr. Elliot McGucken

Dr. Elliot McGucken wrote on Aug. 25, 2008 @ 18:38 GMT
Essay Abstract

In his 1912 Manuscript on Relativity, Einstein never stated that time
is the fourth dimension, but rather he wrote x4 = ict. The fourth
dimension is not time, but ict. Despite this, prominent physicists
have oft equated time and the fourth dimension, leading to un-
resolvable paradoxes and confusion regarding time’s physical nature,
as physicists mistakenly projected properties of the three spatial
dimensions onto a time dimension, resulting in curious concepts
including frozen time and block universes in which the past and future
are omni-present, thusly denying free will, while implying the
possibility of time travel into the past, which visitors from the
future have yet to verify. Beginning with the postulate that time is
an emergent phenomenon resulting from a fourth dimension expanding
relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, diverse
phenomena from relativity, quantum mechanics, and statistical
mechanics are accounted for. Time dilation, the equivalence of mass
and energy, nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and entropy are shown
to arise from a common, deeper physical reality expressed with dx4/
dt=ic. This postulate and equation, from which Einstein’s relativity
is derived, presents a fundamental model accounting for the emergence
of time, the constant velocity of light, the fact that the maximum
velocity is c, and the fact that c is independent of the velocity of
the source, as photons are but matter surfing a fourth expanding
dimension. In general relativity, Einstein showed that the dimensions
themselves could bend, curve, and move. The present theory extends
this principle, postulating that the fourth dimension is moving
independently of the three spatial dimensions, distributing locality
and fathering time. This physical model underlies and accounts for
time in quantum mechanics, relativity, and statistical mechanics, as
well as entropy, the universe’s expansion, and time’s arrows.

Author Bio

“Dr. E” received a B.A. in physics from Princeton University and a
Ph.D. in physics from UNC Chapel Hill, where his research on an
artificial retina, which is now helping the blind see, appeared in
Business Week and Popular Science and was awarded a Merrill Lynch
Innovations Grant. While at Princeton, McGucken worked on projects
concerning quantum mechanics and general relativity with the late John
Wheeler, and the projects combined to form an appendix treating time
as an emergent phenomenon in his dissertation. McGucken is writing a
book for the Artistic Entrepreneurship & Technology
(artsentrepreneurship.com) curriculum he created.

TOPIC: What is Ultimately Possible in Physics? Physics! A Hero’s
Journey with Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein,
Schrodinger, Bohr, and the Greats towards Moving Dimensions Theory. E
pur si muove! by Dr. Elliot McGucken [refresh]

Author Dr. Elliot McGucken wrote on Sep. 16, 2009 @ 14:14 GMT
Essay Abstract

Over the past few decades prominent physicists have noted that physics
has diverged away from its heroic journey defined by boldly
describing, fathoming, and characterizing foundational truths of
physical reality via simple, elegant, logically-consistent postulates
and equations humbling themselves before empirical reality. Herein the
spirit of physics is again exalted by the heroic words of the Greats—
by Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Planck, Einstein, Bohr, and
Schrodinger—the Founding Fathers upon whose shoulders physics stands.
And from that pinnacle, a novel physical theory is proposed, complete
with a novel physical model celebrating a hitherto unsung universal
invariant and an equation reflecting the foundational physical reality
of a fourth dimension expanding relative to the three spatial
dimensions at the rate of c, or dx4/dt=ic, providing both the
“elementary foundations” for relativity and QM’s “characteristic
trait”—entanglement, and its nonlocal, probabilistic nature. From
MDT’s experimentally-verified equation relativity is derived while
time is unfrozen and free will exalted, while a physical model
accounting for quantum nonlocality is presented. Entropy, Huygens’
Principle; the wave/particle, energy/mass, space/time, and E/B
dualities; and time and all its arrows and asymmetries emerge from a
common, foundational physical model. MDT exalts Einstein’s “empirical
facts,” “naturalness,” and “logical simplicity.” For the first time in
the history of relativity, change is woven into the fabric of space-
time, and the timeless, ageless, nonlocal photon of Galileo’s/
Einstein’s “empirical world” is explained via a foundational physical
model, alongside the fact that c is both constant and the maximum
velocity in the universe. The empirical GPS clocks’ time dilation/
twins paradox is resolved by proposing a frame of absolute rest—the
three spatial dimensions, and a frame of absolute motion—the fourth
expanding dimension upon which ageless photons of zero rest mass surf;
which underlie and give rise to Einstein’s Principle of Relativity.

Author Bio

“Dr. E” received a B.A. in physics from Princeton University and a
Ph.D. in physics from UNC Chapel Hill, where his research on an
artificial retina, which is now helping the blind see, appeared in
NSF’s Frontiers and Popular Science and was awarded a Merrill Lynch
Innovations Grant. While at Princeton, McGucken worked on projects
concerning quantum mechanics and general relativity with the late John
A. Wheeler, and the projects combined to form an appendix treating
time as an emergent phenomenon in his dissertation. McGucken is
writing a book artsentrepreneurship.com curriculum he created: The
Gold 45 Revolver: The Hero’s Journey.

On the Emergence of QM, Relativity, Entropy, Time, iħ, and ic… by
Elliot McGucken [refresh]

This essay’s rating: Community = 2.2; Public = 3.4

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Author Dr. Elliot McGucken wrote on Feb. 11, 2011 @ 16:08 GMT
Essay Abstract

The photon is used to physically probe and trace the discrete,
digital, dynamic nature of x4 as the quantum nature of physical
measurement is examined, while the foundational papers of Planck,
Bohr, Heisenberg, et al. are exalted, lead by Einstein’s statement
that physics “starts from experience and ends in it.” In its simplest
case, a photon oscillates while propagating at c as a probabilistic
wave-front expanding through the three spatial dimensions in a
spherically-symmetric manner, as demonstrated by the classic double-
slit experiment, leading to the natural conclusion that x4, in which
the photon remains stationary according to relativity, must thusly be
oscillating and propagating at c as a spherically-symmetric expanding
wavefront. Relativity informs us that all of a photon’s motion is
through the three spatial dimensions, thusly dictating that the
timeless, ageless photon remains stationary in the fourth dimension
x4. As electromagnetic radiation (the photon) is quantized, while
there is no evidence for quantum gravity, we may conclude that x4 is
quantized and digital in nature, while the three spatial dimensions
x4=ict or dx4/dt=ic (Einstein & Minkowski) are fundamental
relationships of QM and relativity. Both equations have differentials
on the left and an i on the right, as Bohr noted, suggesting that a
foundational change is occurring in a “perpendicular” manner, implying
a fourth moving dimension. qp-pq = iħ reflects the discrete increment
and quantum action—ħ —that emerges from the dynamic, discretely
parceled space-time geometry born by the discrete wavelength of x4’s
expansion; while dx4/dt=ic, from which relativity and its postulates
derive, sets the velocity of the expansion of x4 to c. A physical
model encompassing both Einstein’s “elementary foundations” of
relativity and Schrodinger’s “characteristic trait” of QM—entanglement—
is presented.

Author Bio

In high school, theoretical physicist Dr. Elliot McGucken received the
Bausch & Lomb Science Award, the William Tenney Scholar-Athlete Award,
and the Judith Resnik Memorial Scholarship which helped him attend
Princeton University. Dr. E’s Ph.D. research titled “Multiple unit
artificial retina chipset to aid the visually impaired and enhanced
holed-emitter CMOS phototransistors” received several Fight for Sight
and NSF grants, as well as a Merrill Lynch Innovations award. The late
J.A. Wheeler wrote, “More intellectual curiosity, versatility and yen
for physics than Elliot McGucken’s I have never seen in any senior or

HERO’S JOURNEY PHYSICS
Riding with Einstein, Galileo, Copernicus, Planck, Bohr, Newton, and
Feynman beyond the String Theory Multiverse Landscape, and on towards
the Holy Grail of Physics—Moving Dimensions’ Theory’s dx4/dt=ic.
by Dr. Elliot McGucken

Time as an Emergent Phenomenon & Deriving Einstein’s Relativity from
Moving Dimensions Theory’s dx4/dt=ic: Traveling Back to the Heroic Age
of Physics
In Memory of John Archibald Wheeler
by Dr. Elliot McGucken

MDT’s postulate: The fourth dimensions is expanding relative to the
three spatial dimensions at c.  MDT’s equation: dx4/dt=ic.

Simple, logical proofs of MDT:

MDT PROOF#1: Relativity tells us that a timeless, ageless photon
remains in one place in the fourth dimension.  Quantum mechanics tells
us that a photon propagates as a spherically-symmetric expanding
wavefront at the velocity of c.  Ergo, the fourth dimension must be
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c,
in a spherically-symmetric manner.  The expansion of the fourth
dimension is the source of nonlocality, entanglement, time and all its
arrows and asymmetries, c, relativity, entropy, free will, and all
motion, change, and measurement, for no measurement can be made
without change.  For the first time in the history of relativity,
change has been wedded to the fundamental fabric of spacetime in MDT.
MDT PROOF#2:  Einstein (1912 Man. on Rel.) and Minkowski wrote
x4=ict.  Ergo dx4/dt=ic.
MDT PROOF#3: The only way to stay stationary in the three spatial
dimensions is to move at c through the fourth dimension. The only way
to stay stationary in the fourth dimension is to move at c through the
three spatial dimensions. Ergo the fourth dimension is moving at c
relative to the three spatial dimensions.
MDT twitter proof (limited to 140 characters): SR: photon is
stationary in 4th dimension. QM: photon is probability wave expanding
@ c. Ergo: 4th dimension expands @ c & MDT: dx4/dt=ic   –from

ABSTRACT
In his 1912 Manuscript on Relativity, Einstein never stated that time
is the fourth dimension, but rather he wrote x4 = ict.  The fourth
dimension is not time, but ict.  Despite this, prominent physicists
have oft equated time and the fourth dimension, leading to un-
resolvable paradoxes and confusion regarding time’s physical nature,
as physicists mistakenly projected properties of the three spatial
dimensions onto a time dimension, resulting in curious concepts
including frozen time and block universes in which the past and future
are omni-present, thusly denying free will, while implying the
possibility of time travel into the past, which visitors from the
future have yet to verify.  Beginning with the postulate that time is
an emergent phenomenon resulting from a fourth dimension expanding
relative to the three spatial dimensions at the rate of c, diverse
phenomena from relativity, quantum mechanics, and statistical
mechanics are accounted for and unified with a hitherto unsung
universal invariant dx4/dt=ic.  Time dilation, the equivalence of mass
and energy, quantum entanglement, nonlocality, wave-particle duality,
and entropy are shown to arise from a common, deeper physical reality
expressed with dx4/dt=ic.  This postulate and equation, from which
Einstein’s relativity is derived, presents a fundamental model
accounting for the emergence of time, the constant velocity of light,
the fact that the maximum velocity is c, and the fact that c is
independent of the velocity of the source, as photons are but matter
surfing a fourth expanding dimension.  In general relativity, Einstein
showed that the dimensions themselves could bend, curve, and move.
The present theory extends this principle, postulating that the fourth
dimension is moving independently of the three spatial dimensions,
distributing locality and fathering time.  This physical model
underlies and accounts for time in quantum mechanics, relativity, and
statistical mechanics, as well as entropy, the universe’s expansion,
and time’s arrows and asymmetries in all arenas.

“More intellectual curiosity, versatility and yen for physics than
Elliot McGucken’s I have never seen in any senior or graduate
student. . . Originality, powerful motivation, and a can-do spirit
make me think that McGucken is a top bet for graduate school in
physics. . . I say this on the basis of close contacts with him over
the past year and a half. . . I gave him as an independent task to
figure out the time factor in the standard Schwarzchild expression
around a spherically- symmetric center of attraction.  I gave him the
proofs of my new general-audience, calculus-free book on general
relativity, A Journey Into Gravity and Space Time.  There the space
part of the Schwarzchild geometric is worked out by purely geometric
methods.  “Can you, by poor-man’s reasoning, derive what I never have,
the time part?”  He could and did, and wrote it all up in a
beautifully clear account. . . .his second junior paper . . .entitled
Within a Context, was done with another advisor, and dealt with an
entirely different part of physics, the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky
experiment and delayed choice experiments in general. . . this paper
was so outstanding. . .  I am absolutely delighted that this semester
McGucken is doing a project with the cyclotron group on time reversal
asymmetry.  Electronics, machine-shop work and making equipment
function are things in which he now revels.  But he revels in
Shakespeare, too.  Acting the part of Prospero in the Tempest. . . ”
–John Archibald Wheeler, Princeton University, Recommendation for

Dr. Elliot McGucken’s Biography: “Dr. E” received a B.A. in physics
from Princeton University and a Ph.D. in physics from UNC Chapel Hill,
where his research on an artificial retina, which is now helping the
blind see, appeared in Business Week and Popular Science and was
awarded a Merrill Lynch Innovations Grant.  While at Princeton,
McGucken worked on projects concerning quantum mechanics and general
relativity with the late John A. Wheeler, and the projects combined to
form an appendix treating time as an emergent phenomenon in his
dissertation.  McGucken is writing a book for the Artistic
Entrepreneurship & Technology (artsentrepreneurship.com) curriculum he
created.

All great discoveries in experimental physics have been made due to
the intuition of men who made free use of models which for them were
not products of the imagination but representations of real things. –
Max Born
dx4/dt=ic represents the physically real reality of a fourth dimension
expanding relative to the three spatial dimensions.